The Rise of Linux in Edge Computing and IoT

Linux’s effectiveness positions it as a crucial player in the evolving landscape of distributed computing.

Grant Knoetze, Contributor

January 3, 2024

6 Min Read
Linux text over 1's and 0's

Edge computing is commonly described as an evolving paradigm based on distributed computing that focuses on bringing computation and data storage close to the actual source of data generation. 

But how does edge computing relate to Linux? What are some examples of Linux in edge computing? Let’s dive in.

The Benefits of Using Linux in Edge Computing

As noted above, edge computing involves processing data close to its source. In contrast, traditional cloud computing typically centralizes these types of processes in data centers that are spread across the globe. Being close to data's source, edge computing can minimize latency, improve real-time processing, and enhance overall system efficiency.

Linux is a versatile and robust operating system that lends itself to edge computing perfectly. Its open-source nature, combined with other Linux features such as adaptability, scalability, and security, make Linux a great candidate for an OS that powers edge computing systems.

1. Flexibility and customization

The open-source nature of the Linux kernel allows developers to tailor the operating system to meet the specific requirements of edge computing. Linux’s flexibility is useful in edge computing applications where the devices in use vary significantly in terms of CPU processing power, memory, and storage.

2. Scalability

Edge computing environments often consist of diverse devices with varying computing capabilities. Linux’s scalability and adaptability make it a great choice for such environments, accommodating the range of devices.

3. Security

Security is always a priority with edge computing, especially with the proliferation of IoT devices. Linux’s robust security features, along with the global community of developers addressing vulnerabilities, make Linux an inherently secure choice for edge computing applications.

4. Real-time capabilities

Edge computing systems, particularly those using IoT, require real-time processing of data for timely decision-making. Recent advancements in harnessing the real-time processing power of the Linux kernel, such as the PREEMPT_RT patch, aim to reduce latency and increase predictability, providing a bounded response time to external events.

5. Cost-effectiveness

Linux’s open-source nature, along with the general availability of the kernel for developers, help to make Linux cost-effective. This becomes particularly important when deploying large-scale edge computing systems. Linux offers an economically sound solution optimized for performance and security.

The Challenges of Deploying Linux for Edge Computing

Despite all the pros of using Linux for edge computing, organizations must consider certain limitations and challenges.

1. Resource constraints

Edge devices often operate with limited resources. While Linux’s scalability is essentially an asset, striking a balance between functionality and resource usage is important. Careful optimization is essential to ensure efficient utilization of limited resources.

2. Mix of edge devices

There is a vast array of edge devices, ranging from sensors and actuators to gateways and edge servers. The diversity can present a challenge in terms of maintenance and optimization. Addressing various architectures and hardware configurations is a time-intensive process that requires continuous effort.

3. Security concerns

Decentralization is a common feature of edge computing systems, with a multitude of devices each having unique vulnerabilities. Regularly patching and updating these devices can be challenging, as well as difficult to track. Organizations must be vigilant about maintaining the security integrity of edge computing systems.

4. Integration complexity

Integrating various devices into a cohesive system poses complex challenges. Developers must navigate the intricacies to ensure interoperability among devices running Linux and other operating systems.

Key Use Cases: Where Linux Shines in Edge Computing

Here are several examples of how Linux can be invaluable in edge computing environments.

Industrial IoT (IIoT)

In industrial settings, Linux-based edge devices can efficiently process data from sensors, actuators, and Programmable Logic Controllers. This enhances real-time decision-making, operational efficiency, and safety in the rapidly evolving landscape of IIoT.

Smart cities

Linux plays a significant role in smart cities, contributing to systems ranging from traffic management to waste management. Edge devices running Linux that process data locally are behind some of the crucial systems in smart cities. Examples of smart cities include Singapore, London, Hong Kong, Amsterdam, New York, Copenhagen, Seoul, Barcelona, and Oslo.


Real-time data processing is critical in medicine and healthcare. Linux-based edge devices can assist with patient monitoring, predictive maintenance of medical equipment, and securing sensitive patient data.


Using Linux in edge computing can enhance inventory management, create personalized customer experiences, and perform real-time analysis of consumer behavior. This can contribute to overall operational efficiency and tailor the shopping experience for customers.

Autonomous vehicles

Edge computing with Linux enables autonomous cars to make fast and accurate decisions based on real-time data, thus reducing the latency that is typically associated with cloud computing. This allows for precise navigation, obstacle detection, and traffic flow management. Communication among autonomous vehicles enhances safety in scenarios like convoys.


Linux-based edge computing can assist with precision farming by monitoring soil quality, weather patterns, and crop health in real-time. This data-driven approach can help farmers make informed decisions, optimize resource usage, and ultimately improve crop yields.

The Future Landscape: Linux, Edge Computing, and Beyond

As technology advances, Linux and edge computing are set to become integral in various domains. The open-source nature of Linux automatically fosters collaboration and aligns with the distributed nature of edge computing. Ongoing collaboration among developers worldwide ensures continuous evolution, enabling Linux to adapt to the dynamic changes in the edge computing space.

Emerging technologies

The convergence of Linux with technologies such as 5G, for example, will further amplify the capabilities of edge computing. The increased bandwidth and reduced latency offered by 5G enable edge computing devices to handle more complex tasks, unlocking new possibilities for the future.

Edge AI and machine learning

The integration of AI and machine learning (ML) with edge computing is another place where Linux is proving itself. Edge computing systems hosting lightweight AI and ML models enable more intelligent decision-making with reduced latency, eliminating the reliance on centralized cloud servers for such operations and data processing.

Security innovations

Linux remains resilient in the face of a growing global threat landscape. The Mitre Corporation, under the MITRE ATT&CK banner, is tracking at least 94 different advanced persistent threat (APT) groups worldwide. Linux IoT devices are already targeted by APT groups and malware operators, and there will no doubt be APT groups specializing in edge computing systems, particularly those groups that are already focused on Industrial Control Systems. Ongoing security innovations are important for protecting these evolving technologies.

Main Takeaways

Linux has been shown to work very well in edge computing systems. In these types of systems, data can be analyzed close to the source, thereby reducing latency and improving real-time processing capabilities. The open-source nature of Linux, while providing many benefits, also presents challenges.

  • What Is Real-Time Linux?

ITPro Linux resources

  • My ITPro Today Contributor page, with links to my other Linux articles

About the Author(s)

Grant Knoetze


Grant Knoetze is a cybersecurity analyst with a special interest in DFIR, programming languages, incident response, red-teaming, and malware analysis. His full-time job includes teaching and instructing in various topics from basic Linux all the way through to malware incident response, and other advanced topics. He is also a speaker at various conferences worldwide.

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