Snapshot Isolation vs. NoLock

Snapshot Isolation vs. NoLock

One of my least favorite features of Microsoft SQL Server is that it lets you apply a NoLock hint within a query. The NoLock hint tells SQL Server that, for the current query, you'd like to read the data from a given table while ignoring any locks. In systems in which there are multiple processes trying to simultaneously access the same resource, NoLock is advantageous because it allows user queries to operate without needing to wait for updates to finish. The disadvantage is that in many cases users read data that hasn't been committed to the database or is only partially in place, which can produce unexpected results.

I usually find the NoLock hint in use by Web applications that are well behaved but the business tier has a custom-reporting capability, import capability, or both. For example, a common pattern is that in order to speed custom reporting, the system occasionally reads from five or six related tables, then inserts or updates all the data used to create reports into a single table. Rather than update the reporting table as changes occur on the source table, the developers thought they could speed the system by batching these updates. Similarly, for data import, there's one giant statement that takes a table or a file of data from another system and attempts to insert all the rows in a single SQL statement.

The problem with batching updates and using giant statements is that SQL Server holds locks until the entire transaction completes. As a result, users' queries against the involved tables are suspended, making it seem like the application has frozen. The easy solution is to add the NoLock hint, which allows these queries to occur while these massive updates statements run their course.

At this point, a quick review seems in order. When you're creating a transaction, you want to follow the Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation, and Durability (ACID) principle. Atomicity doesn't refer to an atom bomb but rather that a transaction should be processed completely or not at all. Thus, you should work with the smallest possible unit. For example, it's better to process one order and its accompanying set of order details rather than 10,000 orders and all of their accompanying details.

Granted, NoLock usually lets organizations survive with few noticeable errors. However, I had been looking forward to SQL Server 2005 because it was supposed to provide an alternative to using NoLock. In SQL Server 2005, Microsoft introduced Snapshot Isolation. The basic idea is that transactions are held in suspense; thus, a long-running transaction (e.g., 10,000 orders) wouldn't hold locks during the transaction's update cycle, allowing reads to be done against clean data.

Unfortunately, Snapshot Isolation has two problems that keep it from being a good replacement for NoLock. The first problem is that enabling the Snapshot Isolation option in a database requires an additional 14 bytes of space per row in every table. Given that most companies that have broken the transaction rules have also created some very wide tables, this space requirement can be a problem.

The second and bigger problem is how this feature is implemented. Specifically, when data is written to a database, SQL Server 2005 writes all the data to a temporary table in TempDB instead of updating the actual database. When the transaction completes, SQL Server 2005 moves the data from TempDB storage to the database. This means that the system will likely need additional hardware to provide more I/O capacity.

Unfortunately, I suspect that the majority of organizations that could really benefit from Snapshot Isolation won't be willing to pay the price to implement it. Of course, the real solution is to not have long-running transactions, but then everyone agrees with that in principle. For more information about Snapshot Isolation in SQL Server 2005, I suggest that you go to

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