- What Is the Linux File System?
- How Do You Copy Directories in Linux?
- What Are Some Other Commands That Can Assist in the Copy Process?
What Is the Linux File System?
The Linux file system is a system for storing files and folders on a Linux machine. Like other file systems, the Linux file system is applied to physical or virtual disks and serves as an organized system for file storage.
Generally, a file system is a mechanism that sets rules for file storage. For example, the file system determines the maximum length of a filename, the characters that can be included in a filename, the maximum folder depth, and more.
How Do You Copy Directories in Linux?
There are several ways to copy files and directories in Linux. Below are three commonly used options.
1. The SCP command
The SCP command (Secure Copy Protocol command) is used for copying data between your local system and a remote system. Data can flow in either direction, meaning that you can copy a directory from a remote system to your local system or you can copy a directory from your local system to a remote system.
The SCP command is straightforward to use. If you want to copy files from a remote system, you can use a command like this:
Scp username@remotesystem:filename.ext /local/location
In this example, username@remotesystem represents a user account on the system from which you are copying data. Filename.ext is a placeholder for the name of the file that you want to copy. If you want to copy an entire directory, list the directory name instead. /location/local represents a local directory name where the files are to be copied.
If your goal is to copy a file to the remote system, the SCP command is essentially reversed. The command would look something like this:
Scp filename.ext username@remotesystem:/remote/location
2. The Rsync command
The Rsync command (Remote Sync command) can be used to copy files and directories, but it is primarily used for performing backups or migrations.
At its simplest, you need only to supply the source and destination path and one or more parameters. For example, the -a switch is commonly used because it preserves file ownership and permission information.
To copy a file using Rsync, you would use a command like this:
Rsync -a /source/path/filename.ext /destination/path
In this example, /source/path represents the file’s current location, and /destination/path represents the location that the file is copied to. Filename.ext represents the name of the file to be copied.
The Rsync command can be used to copy entire directories by supplying the directory name rather than a filename.
3. CP command
The CP command (Copy command) is probably the best-known utility for copying files. Like the Rsync command, it simply requires you to enter the source and destination paths. If your goal is to copy an entire directory, you would provide the source directory and the destination directory, along with the -R (recursive) parameter.
Here is what such an operation might look like:
In this example, Source_Directory and Destination_Directory take the place of the actual source and destination directories.
The CP command can be used to copy individual files by specifying a filename instead of a directory name.
What Are Some Other Commands That Can Assist in the Copy Process?
Here are five commands that can help you in the copy process.
1. Find command
The Find command can be used to look for a specific file. For example, if you want to see if a file named Readme.txt existed in a folder called Temp, you would use this command:
Find ./Temp readme.txt
2. Tree command
The tree command is used to view files and subfolders within a specific folder. Additionally, the tree command will display the files residing in each subfolder.
To see a tree view of the contents of a folder named Temp, you would enter:
Tree -a ./temp
The tree utility is not installed by default typically, so you will need to install it by using the Install Tree command or the Apt Install Tree command depending on the Linux distribution you use.
3. Ls command
The ls command is used to list the files in the current directory. Numerous parameters can be used in conjunction with the ls command as a way of filtering the command’s output. However, the ls command can also be used by itself without any parameters.
One of the most useful parameters is -a, which causes hidden files to be displayed in the output. Here is what the command would look like:
4. MV command
The mv command can be used to rename or move a file or folder. To use it, you need only to specify the source and destination. For example, if you wanted to rename readme.txt to read.txt, you would use this command:
Mv readme.txt read.txt
The rm command deletes a specified file or folder. To use this command, you need only to specify the name of the file or directory that you want to remove. For example, if you wanted to delete the readme.txt file, you would type:
Here are answers to frequently asked questions about copying directories in Linux.
What is Linux?
Linux is a UNIX-like, open source operating system. Unlike Windows, a competing operating system from Microsoft, numerous different vendors offer Linux distributions. Another key difference between Windows and Linux is that many Linux distributions can be licensed free of cost.
What is a directory?
A directory is just another name for a file system folder. It is essentially just a container within the file system that can be used to store files that are somehow related to one another (such as a collection of documents or a group of files that make up an application). Directories can also store other directories, which are known as subdirectories.
How do you copy hidden files in Linux?
If you want to copy hidden files in Linux, use the CP command as you normally would. The trick to making the CP command copy hidden files is to append the -a switch.
What are some tips for copying directories in Linux?
Aside from what we have already covered, here are a couple of additional considerations for copying files and directories in Linux.
First, be careful when copying anything that is owned by Root, because you can cause problems if you accidentally overwrite a critical file. If you do need to copy a file or folder that is owned by Root, you will need to use the Sudo command.
Second, note the amount of data that needs to be copied. If the copy process involves large amounts of data, you might consider using the TAR command, as it sometimes copies data more quickly than other commands.
About the authorBrien Posey is the vice president of research and development for Relevant Technologies. He writes technical content for a variety of publications and Web sites and covers the security and data storage beats for ITPro Today.