I first addressed the subject condition in tip 3280.
When tip 3280 didn't solve his problem, site visitor John Loven did his own sleuthing, and discovered that a user had deleted Microsoft certificates at Control Panel / Internet Options / Content / Certificates / Trusted Root Certification Authorities.
John exported the deleted Microsoft certificates from another installation and imported them to the problem computer. This solved the problem.
If you don't have another installation, Download and unzip these certificates and import them.