Microsoft TechNet article, How Domain Rename Works begins with:
You can use the domain rename process to change the names of your domains, and you can also use it to change the structure of the domain trees in your forest. This process involves updating the Domain Name System (DNS) and trust infrastructures as well as Group Policy and service principal names (SPNs).
Because the domain rename process involves updating the DNS and trust infrastructures as well as Group Policy and SPNs, a domain rename operation affects every domain controller in the forest. Domain rename is a multistep process that results in updates to the directory and in other side effects. This section provides details about the domain rename process and its interactions with Active Directory, DNS, Group Policy, and security.
It is imperative that you not attempt a domain rename operation until you read and understand the contents of this technical reference.