Q: Is there a Microsoft solution to perform offline patching of Hyper-V virtual machines (VMs)?
A: In the past, Microsoft had the Virtual Machine Servicing Tool (VMST), which allowed the patching of Hyper-V VMs. However, the last supported version worked for System Center Virtual Machine Manager (SCVMM) 2012. I actually wrote my own script to patch offline VHD files, which I posted at Windows IT Pro --that could also patch a WIM file.
Microsoft has now released an updated solution based on Orchestrator SMA that can patch VMs stored in an SCVMM library from updates available in WSUS. The solution is available at Microsoft's TechNet blog website. The solution comes in the form of the SMA runbook and instructions on its actual usage.