Windows Tips & Tricks UPDATE--July 26, 2004

Windows Tips & Tricks UPDATE, July 26, 2004, —brought to you by the Windows & .NET Magazine Network and the Windows 2000 FAQ site
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FAQs

  • Q. How can I determine the location of an executable file on my Windows Server 2003 system?
  • Q. Why can't I update the Active Directory (AD) schema for Microsoft Systems Management Server (SMS)? Schema update is enabled, and I have Schema Admins permission.
  • Q. How can I create a query-based Distribution Group (DG)?
  • Q. How can I prevent nonadministrative users from creating top-level public folders in Exchange 2000 Server?
  • Q. How can I start the local Microsoft Management Console (MMC) Active Directory Users and Computers snap-in from the command line?

Commentary
by John Savill, FAQ Editor, [email protected]

This week, I tell you how to determine the location of an executable file on a Windows Server 2003 system, troubleshoot a problem with updating the Active Directory (AD) schema for Microsoft Systems Management Server (SMS), and explain how to create a query-based Distribution Group (DG). I also explain how to prevent nonadministrators from creating top-level public folders in Exchange 2000 Server and how to start the local Microsoft Management Console (MMC) Active Directory Users and Computers snap-in from the command line.


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FAQs

Q. How can I determine the location of an executable file on my Windows Server 2003 system?

A. Your Windows 2003 environment contains a PATH variable that's created by using the system path variable and a user-specific path variable. When a program resides in a folder that appears in the PATH variable, you can start the program simply by typing the executable's filename--for example, dcdiag.exe (assuming the Windows 2003 Support Tools--which include dcdiag.exe--are installed on your Windows 2003 system); you don't have to precede the executable name with the full pathname if the pathname is part of the PATH variable. You can check your PATH variable by running the command

echo %path%

from a command prompt; you'll see that the variable contains one or more paths, such as c:\program files;c:\program files\support tools. Using this PATH variable as an example, if the executable resides in either the Program Files or Support Tools folder, you don't need to type the complete path.

Sometimes you might want to check the location of an executable file (e.g., a command). To do so, start a command prompt (cmd.exe) and type

where 

For example, entering the command

where dcdiag.exe

displays the following results:

C:\program files\support tools\dcdiag.exe

Q. Why can't I update the Active Directory (AD) schema for Microsoft Systems Management Server (SMS)? Schema update is enabled, and I have Schema Admins permission.

A. I recently had this problem. I had a lab environment in which I repeatedly tried--and failed--to update the schema for SMS by running the command

extadsch.exe

After I ran the command, the log file contained the following information:

 Modifying Active Directory Schema - with SMS
extensions.
 DS
Root:CN=Schema,CN=Configuration,DC=savilltech,DC=com
 Failed to create attribute cn=MS-SMS-Site-Code.
Error code = 8206.
 Failed to create attribute cn=mS-SMS-Assignment
Site-Code. Error code = 8206.
 Failed to create attribute cn=MS-SMS-Site-
Boundaries. Error code = 8206.
 Failed to create attribute cn=MS-SMS-Roaming-
Boundaries. Error code = 8206.
 Failed to create attribute cn=MS-SMS-Default-MP.
Error code = 8206.
 Failed to create attribute cn=mS-SMS-Device-
Management-Point. Error code = 8206.
 Failed to create attribute cn=MS-SMS-MP-Name.
Error code = 8206.
 Failed to create attribute cn=MS-SMS-MP-Address.
Error code = 8206.
 Failed to create attribute cn=MS-SMS-Ranged-IP-
Low. Error code = 8206.
 Failed to create attribute cn=MS-SMS-Ranged-IP-
High. Error code = 8206.
 Failed to create class cn=MS-SMS-Management-
Point. Error code = 8202.
 Failed to create class cn=MS-SMS-Server-Locator-
Point. Error code = 8202.
 Failed to create class cn=MS-SMS-Site. Error code
= 8202.
 Failed to create class cn=MS-SMS-Roaming-
Boundary-Range. Error code = 8202.
 Failed to extend the Active Directory schema.

After much investigation, I discovered the reason for the failed schema update: I had many domain controllers (DCs) that weren't running and consequently had replication errors. After I started the other DCs and resolved the replication errors by forcing a replication, the schema update worked perfectly, as you can see in the following log file output:

 Modifying Active Directory Schema - with SMS
extensions.
 DS
Root:CN=Schema,CN=Configuration,DC=savilltech,DC=com
 Defined attribute cn=MS-SMS-Site-Code.
 Defined attribute cn=mS-SMS-Assignment-Site-Code.
 Defined attribute cn=MS-SMS-Site-Boundaries.
 Defined attribute cn=MS-SMS-Roaming-Boundaries.
 Defined attribute cn=MS-SMS-Default-MP.
 Defined attribute cn=mS-SMS-Device-Management-
Point.
 Defined attribute cn=MS-SMS-MP-Name.
 Defined attribute cn=MS-SMS-MP-Address.
 Defined attribute cn=MS-SMS-Ranged-IP-Low.
 Defined attribute cn=MS-SMS-Ranged-IP-High.
 Defined class cn=MS-SMS-Management-Point.
 Defined class cn=MS-SMS-Server-Locator-Point.
 Defined class cn=MS-SMS-Site.
 Defined class cn=MS-SMS-Roaming-Boundary-Range.
 Successfully extended the Active Directory
schema.

 Please refer to the SMS documentation for
instructions on the manual
 configuration of access rights in active
directory which may still
 need to be performed. (Although the AD schema has
now been extended,
 AD must be configured to allow each SMS Site
security rights to
 publish in each of their domains.)

Q. How can I create a query-based Distribution Group (DG)?

A. Most groups in Active Directory (AD) contain static members--that is, group membership doesn't change unless you open the group and add users or other groups to it. In some cases, you might want to include in a group users who meet certain criteria and have AD reevaluate the group's membership each time the group is used. To evaluate a group's membership and determine who should be in the group, you use a Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) query to create a query-based DG, a feature that Microsoft introduced in Exchange Server 2003.

The group-membership evaluation process uses more processor resources than using static groups because you must rerun the LDAP query that defines a group's membership every time you use the query-based DG.

To create a query-based DG, perform the following steps:

  1. Start the Microsoft Management Console (MMC) Active Directory Users and Computers snap-in (Start, Programs, Administrative Tools, Active Directory Users and Computers).
  2. Right-click the container in which you want to create the new query-based DG and select New, Query-based Distribution Group.
  3. Enter a name for the DG and click Next.
  4. You can select the root container that the query will search for matching objects. By default, this is the container in which you're creating the new object; however, you can change the default root container by clicking the Change button.
  5. You can define a standard type of query-based group that filters members according to the criteria that the figure at http://www.winnetmag.com/content/content/43355/qbdgcreate1.gif shows. Alternatively, you can select "Customize filter" and click Customize to set up a customized filter that contains your own criteria. After you click Customize, you'll see the Find Exchange Recipients dialog box. Select the Advanced tab to define the attributes of the objects and the values that AD will use to evaluate the membership.
  6. After you've finished configuring the query-based DG, click Next.
  7. Click Finish.

You can view a query-based DG's current membership by right-clicking the DG and selecting Properties, then selecting the Preview tab. Remember that query-based DGs are evaluated against a Global Catalog (GC); if a GC isn't available, Exchange places the evaluation in a retry state and reattempts it in 1 hour.

Q. How can I prevent nonadministrative users from creating top-level public folders in Exchange 2000 Server?

A. Exchange Server 2003 doesn't let nonadministrators create top-level public folders. To modify Exchange 2000 so that nonadministrative users can't create top-level folders, perform these steps:

  1. Enable the Exchange organization's Security tab, as explained in the FAQ "How can I enable the Security tab at the Exchange organization level?" (http://www.winnetmag.com/articles/index.cfm?articleid=42869).
  2. Start the Exchange System Manager (ESM) utility.
  3. Right-click the organization and select Properties.
  4. Select the Security tab.
  5. Under Name, select the "Everyone" entry.
  6. In the Permissions section, clear the "Create top level public folder" check box under the Allow column.
  7. Click OK.

If you don't plan to add Exchange 2000 servers and have the Exchange 2003 installation media, an alternative method is to run the Exchange 2003 command

setup /forestprep

Be aware that if you use this method, adding another Exchange 2000 server in the future will re-enable all users' ability to create top-level folders.

Q. How can I start the local Microsoft Management Console (MMC) Active Directory Users and Computers snap-in from the command line?

A. To start the local Active Directory Users and Computers snap-in from the command line on a Windows Server 2003 or Windows 2000 Server system, enter the command

control userpasswords

To start the snap-in from the command line on a Windows XP Professional Edition system, enter the command

control userpasswords2

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