JSI Tip 10080. FILEACL.EXE freeware allows to manipulate ACLs on NTFS volumes.


Download FILEACL 2.8.0.1 from Microsoft. (Copyright Guillaume Bordier 1999, [email protected]r.com)

FILEACL allows you to:

View ACLs on any NTFS local or remote drive
Set ACLs on any NTFS local or remote
View Ownership
Change Ownership
Uses Backup and Restore Rights to view/change ACL/ownership on non accessible files/dir
recurse through files and directories
\[WIN2K\] Inheritance auto-propogation aware
shows RAW SID and/or Access Mask for an ACE
Apply RAW SID and/or Access Mask (you could put ACL related to non-available domain trustees !)
Address Deny rights
Configure ALL inheritance matters of NTFS
Batch Mode to dump permissions to a file and reapply later (/BATCH)

Command Line : 

fileacl<File/Directory> 

\[/\{S|G|R|T|O|D\} \{trustee\}:\[\[!\]RWXDOPF\]\[/\[!\]RWXDOPF\]\[/\[!\]RWXDOPF\] 

\[options\]

 or

fileacl<File/Directory>

\[/\{S|G|R|T|O|D\} \{trustee\}:\[RWXDOPF\] \[:IO|OI|NP|CI|FO|F|FF|FSF|FS|SFF|SF

\[options\]

 

commands:

/S

Set permissions (overwrite any ACEs related to the trustee)

/G

Grant permissions (enlarge ACEs related to the trustee)

/R

Revoke trustee (deletes all ACEs related to the trustee)

/T

special : Suppress all DENY ACEs for the trustee.

/O

Give ownership to the trustee (require TakeOwnership privilege)

/D

Put a Deny Access ACE

Trustee could be user or group, domain\trustee or SID (S-1-x ....).

Simple Rights

Right

Meaning  for Directories

Meaning for Files

R

Read

Read

X

Change dir

Execute 

W

Write

Write

D

Delete 

Delete

O

Allowed to take/give ownership

 idem

P

Write permissions

Write permissions

U

Unspecified (0 right)

Unspecified (0 right)

Switches:

Display mode Options

/LINE

operate in single-line mode display all ACEs on a file or directory on One row

/ADVANCED

Show detailed rights

/OWNER

Get the owner name as well

/NOINHERITED

do not print inherited rights

/SIMPLE

Merge inherited and direct ACL

/BATCH

Generate a batch file for reapplying the same permissions, use with /SUB

/RAW\[SID|MASK\]

Show the RAW ACE SID and/or Mask

/RAWSECDESC

\[WIN2K\] Show the RAW Security Descriptor with Textual Form ou may use this to generate Win2K securitytemplates and apply them with secedit

/QUOTE

add quotes to file and directory names

Change mode options

 

/PROTECT

This permissions will be protected from upper levels permissions propagation \[WIN2K\]

/INHERIT

Force Propagation from upper levels \[WIN2K\]

/NOROOT

use with /SUB, apply rights to all subdirs/subfile except the root dir

/REPLACE

deletes existing ACL and replace with specified (SET )

Both mode options

/SUB\[:n\]

treats n levels of subdirectories as well

/FILES

treats files in directories as well

/NODIRS

treats files only

/FORCE

uses SeBackupPrivilege and SeRestorePrivilege to Treat Objects without any rights nor ownership

/NT4

Enforce NT 4.0 compatibility for Write Masks later version will test dest computer

FILEACL allows for "apply to objects and sub-folders in this folder only"
With standard FILEACL syntax, just add “!” in front of your access mask to limit propagation to the first level.

Ex:

FILEACL c:\temp\testacl /s user:R/!W/F will limit inheritance of Write access for files to the testacl directory.

You also can use a different syntax adding your inheritance flag manually at the end of a single mask command line.

Inheritance can be :

Flag with first syntax

Syntax 2

Meaning

FO

FO

Folder Only

F

OI/IO

Files only / Inherit Only + Object Inherit

FF

OI

Folder and Files / Object Inherit

FSFF

CI/OI

Folder and subfolders and Files / Container Inherit + Object Inherit

FSF

CI

Folder and subfolders / Container Inherit

SF

CI/IO

Subfolders / Container Inherit + Inherit only

SFF

CI/OI/IO

Subfolders and Files / Container Inherit + Object Inherit + Inherit only

NP

NP

Non Propagation, can be appended on either of the later

FILEACL c:\temp\testacl /s user:R/!W/F 
Would then translate into
FILEACL c:\temp\testacl /s user:R:FO /s user:W/F/NP /s user:F:SF
or
FILEACL c:\temp\testacl /s user:R:FO /s user:W/OI/IO/NP /s user:F/CI/IO

Error Codes:

0

Success

100

Return usage

101

Bad OS version

102

Bad syntax

103

Bad path

104

Bad fileSystem

105

Error adding ACL

106

Error setting ownership

107

Error listing ACLs

108

Error reading directory

109

Bad Inheritance Flag

Typical : 

FILEACL d:\temp\acltest /S user1:RW

gives Read/Write access on directory d:\temp\acltest to trustee user1

 

FILEACL \\server\share\dir /S admingroup1:F /S usergroup1:RX/W/D /O admingroup1 /SUB:3  /FILES

give admingroup1 Full right to network dir, and give usergroup1 RX to dir; right to modify existing files to dir, and delete files on 3 sub-levels of directories and files.

admingroup1 is set as owner for all files and dirs

 

FILEACL \\server\share\dir /S S-1-5-21-1606980848-1383384898-842925246-1008:R

give Read right to a user given its SID, even if the DC for that domain is not online or the account is not created/synchronized yet !

or even :

FILEACL \\server\share\dir /S S-1-5-21-1606980848-1383384898-842925246-1008:0x120089/0x100116

to set a special mask

 

FILEACL d:\temp\acltest /INHERIT /REPLACE  

Reset permissions and allow propagation from upper levels

 

FILEACL d:\temp\acltest /owner /raw 

gives ACEs (one trustee per line) and owner with RAW sid and access mask

 

What are  ACL and ACE ?

ACE stands for Access control entry, it specifies :

a trustee

an access mask

an ACE type (could be deny ACE, audit ACE)

an inheritance flag

ACL stands for Access control List, it is a list of ACEs.

 

What does ACLs levels means ?

Multi-level ACLs treat inheritance (ONLY for directories !)

If you see/give one level 
(/S trustee:RW = /S trustee:RW/RW/RW )

ACL is built with RW rights for the directory, and all inherited files and sub-directories.

 

If you see/give two levels of ACE 
(/S trustee:RW/X = /S trustee:RW/X/RW )

ACL is built with RW rights for the directory and all inherited sub-directories, and X right for all inherited 

 

If you see/give three levels of ACE 
(/S trustee:RW/X/R )

ACL is built with RW rights for the directory, X right for inheriting files  and R right for inheriting sub-directories.

 

Difference between OSes

NT4 SP3, NT4 SP4 and later and Windows 2000 treats ACLs in a slightly different manner :

 

NT4 SP3 uses GENERIC_RIGHTS (ie 0x10000000 to 0x80000000 access masks) to grant access to files and inherited files.

 

NT4 SP4 and later do not use GENERIC_RIGHTS any more (although it understands it), it uses the same masks for directories and files masks.

 

On directories NT4 (All sps)  always build a 2 ACEs ACL for a trustee,

First ACE is set with Directory Inherit flag (0x2).

Second ACE is set with Files inherit  only  flag (0x9).

This means that the first ACE addresses the directory and its inherited sub-directories, and the second ACE addresses only inherited files.

In only one case does NT4 build a single ACE ACL for a trustee :

When you select "Take ownership" for a directory, it deletes the ACL and replace it with a 0x3 ACE (Inherit  on files and directories).

 

Windows 2000 is much more consistent about all that : it only create separate ACE if needed, each time a single ACE can be used, it is.

 

Differences in Access Masks :

Windows 2000 does not need READ_CONTROL (0x20000) mask for writing to a directory and NT4 does need it.

A Write ACE would typically be (0x120116) with NT4 and (0x100116) with Windows 2000, be sure to use /NT4 switch if your ACLs will be read by NT 4.0 workstation .

 

Windows 2000 introduce "Delete file and subfolder" right (0x110040).

 

Windows 2000 has an  Autopropagation feature, all rights on a parent are propagated on children.

FILEACL keeps the protection status of a folder unless /PROTECT or /INHERIT 

Go Windows 2000 now !

 

Questions ? : this

OUTPUT : 
d:\test;Administrators:F\[I\] Administrators have Inherited Full Control from Autopropagation(\[I\]) 
d:\test;Everyone:F/RWEveryone has Full Control over this directory and future sub-directories and RW on future Files
d:\test;Guest:F/W/RGuest has Full Control in the dir, W on future files, and Read on future subdirs


Detailed Rights

Right

Meaning  for Directories

Meaning for Files

Rr

List Directory

Read Data

Ra/Wa

Read / Write Attributes

Read / Write Attributes

Re/We

Read / Write Extended Attributes

Read / Write Extended Attributes

X

Change dir

Execute 

Ww

Add Files to directory

Write Data

A

Add subdir to directory

Append data to file

D

Delete 

Delete

Dc

Delete Child (sub file or sub dir);

No Meaning

O

Allowed to take/give ownership

 idem

p/P

Read / Write Permissions

Read / Write Permissions

U

Unspecified (0 right)

Unspecified (0 right)

R

Rr+Ra+Re+p

 

W

Ww+A+Wa+We+P (NT4 : W=Ww+A+Wa+We+P+p

 


File Deletion is performed if : 
Parent dir has Rr and Dc access OR file has D

Minimum Access for reading a file is Rr on parent dir and RrRep on file
Minimum Access for saving an open file is Rr on parent and RrRepW on file 
Minimum Access for creating new file is Ww on parent dir
Minimum Access for creating new dir is A on parent dir 

Access masks are defined this way : 

 

31

30

29

28

27

26

25

24

23

22

21

20

19

18

17

16

15

14

13

12

11

10

9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

0

GR

GW

GE

GA

Reserved

AS

Standard Access Rights

Object-Specific Access Rights

GR = Generic Read

GW = Generic Write

GE = Generic Execute

GA = Generic All

AS = Access to Audit ACL (SACL)

 

Known Issues :

RWXDDc (every right except ownership and write permissions) may appear as “F” (Full Access) in display mode.
Use /ADVANCED to show detailed rights.



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